And yet there is one industry that continues to operate like it’s 1905: the customer service industry. And despite the lower labor costs associated with outsourcing, this system still costs $1.3 trillion for just 265 billion customer service calls each year. That means most businesses spend $5 for every single customer service call that comes through. In other words, human-to-human contact is not a satisfying avenue for customer service anymore. Chatbots even act as an assembly line on their own, with different chatbots programmed to serve different functions in succession.